Fat Cutting: Lipogenesis and Lipolysis
When wanting to cut fat, do you know the differences between Lipogenesis and Lipolysis?
There are many words banded around for terminology regarding fat, obesity, weight gain, fat burning and cutting.
However, very little is ever really detailed about the processes.
Lipogenesis is the biosynthesis (also known as anabolism) which involves a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process of fatty acids and triglyceride combination from glucose for instance. It can include other substances whereby enzymes grow.
This is a process that happens mainly in your liver. However, it may also take place within the fat.
On the other hand, Lipolysis breaks down stored energy in fats for energy if you are currently in a state of fasting or are exercising.
It is a process that destroys and disintegrates lipids such as fats and cholesterol which are stored in fatty tissues and the muscles.
This aids cutting fat.
[Wolf G. The mechanism and regulation of fat mobilization from adipose tissue: desnutrin, a newly discovered lipolytic enzyme. Nutr Rev. 2005;63:166–170]
There are also hormonal factors which play a part in the regulation of this breakdown of fat.
Testosterone is one as is estradiol which is produced by the ovaries during the period between females hit puberty and the menopause.
You may have heard about glycerol and free fatty acids which are the end product of lipolysis and are then available for energy.
Insulin, can block the effects and actions of lipolysis, in turn it then increases the process of lipogenesis.
There’s also the factor of SREBP-1 to take in to account…
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 depends on insulin for fatty acid and cholesterol production.
As such, it is better to have a lower concentration of insulin in order to help the process of lipolysis which is better for fat cutting.
[Siemińska L. Endokrynologia Polska. Polish Journal of Endocrinology. 2007;58:330–347.]
Fat Cell Receptors
There are two receptors involving fat cell, fat accumulation and fat available for energy expenditure.
“a” receptors support lipogenesis .
“β” receptors support lipolysis.
Remember, lipolysis supports fat cutting.
Adrenaline has a role of stimulating both fat cell receptors. However, as we age, the “β” adrenergic receptors are reduced.
As a result, this increases the amount of fatty tissue which in turn forces a higher response from the “a” receptors in fat cells.
This, then, increases the fatty tissue more so which becomes more evident as people become older which makes fat cutting more difficult to achieve.
[Martini MC. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL; 2007. Kosmetologia i farmakologia skóry; pp. 300–309.]
Adrenaline is part of the family of neurotransmitters consisting of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and L-dopa which fall under the name of catecholamines which are released as a result of stress from the nervous system.
These catecholamines have an effect on “β” receptors which in turn speeds up metabolism which burns more calories and effects your intake of fats and carbohydrates.
[Skałba P. Receptory, hormony płciowe, leki stosowane w hormonalnej terapii. In: W: Skałba P, editor. Hormonalna terapia zastępcza. Wyd. II. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL; 2005. pp. 88–50.]
Fatty Tissue Metabolism
Other receptors to bear in mind are: Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors.
The nuclear receptor has an affect on metabolism of fatty tissues and they also influence the maturing and diversifying fat cells.
These activated receptors influence the process of lipolysis.
[Ciupińska M, Noszczyk M. Kosmetologia pielęgnacyjna i lekarska. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL; 2010. Pielęgnacja ciała. Częste problemy estetyczne i zdrowotne sylwetki i skóry ciała; pp. 189–209.]
It is worth remembering that oestrogen, the female sex hormone, reduces the lipolysis yet increases lipogenesis which will have a negative effect on cutting fat.
Testosterone, on the other hand stimulates lipolysis by increasing the number of lipolytic b-adrenergic receptors which results in a more effective hormone to cut fat.
As a result, both men and women can use an effective natural test booster in order to help reduce their body fat mass.
[International Journal of Obesity (2000) 24, Suppl 2, S59±S63]